Some communities living near wood pellet mills have also protested about the fumes that waft over their homes. Woodville, though, with fewer than 3, residents — about a quarter below the poverty line — values jobs. Sanchez once went to a local environmental meeting and was the only person who showed up. All was quiet: operations at the plant, which started production in , are currently suspended.
German Pellets filed for insolvency in but environmental campaigners fear their Texas plants will reopen soon despite a string of safety problems. Last year a fire in a silo and a separate fatal accident at a German Pellets Texas storage facility prompted lawsuits. There was an explosion and fire at the Woodville plant in And the Sierra Club environmental group accuses the facility of far exceeding permitted levels of emissions, with regulators willing to raise pollution limits. The Texas commission on environmental quality and German Pellets did not respond to requests for comment, but a TCEQ spokeswoman told the Texas Observer that it ensures violations are corrected.
An analysis by the Environmental Integrity Project found that at least eight of the 15 largest US wood pellet facilities have had fires or explosions since , while 21 mills exporting to Europe emit excessive greenhouse gases and pollutants.
Back in her garden, Sanchez is not anti-industry but believes that regulations need to be tightened. She cannot prove the plant made her sick but thinks it is no coincidence that her health is much improved since it ceased production. Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Topics Biomass and bioenergy. Texas Energy Biofuels Renewable energy features. Reuse this content. Most popular.
She could see the whole farm from there. Eric was downstairs, frustrated and upset. Then it occurred to him that the creatures were either afraid of or hurt by the light. That had to be why they didn't attack him. He made the decision to use that light to get out to the barn and fetch a gun. He went out and flailed his arms in a desperate attempt to trigger the motion sensor.
When the light came on, Eric realized that the eyes were staring back at him, surrounding him. Eric was being hunted. He had to get back into the house. He got back as quickly as he could, barely making it before the light went out.
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- Luna de exilio (Saga Lunas nº 1) (Spanish Edition).
Shelley heard them approach. They were on the other side of the outside wall, and if they wanted in, they were going to get in. Her family was being held hostage in their own house by these creatures. They weren't able to get the guns.
There weren't any police coming. What were they going to do?
Secrets of the Woods Series by C.A. Fray
Grabbing every sharp implement they could find, Shelley went and woke Chelsea. They needed all hands awake and alert. They all went into the master bedroom and laid on top of the bed, armed, waiting on daylight to come. When they heard the creatures outside, they were petrified.
The only thing between the Martins and the creatures was the bedroom window. When morning came, they could finally breathe a sigh of relief. In "The Methodological Limits of Flannery O'Connor's Critics," John May catalogs the conclusions reached by scholars in the O'Connor critical venture, which have been shaped, consciously or unconsciously, by assumptions about the relationship between literature and religion. Beverly Clark and Caroline Brown take a more general approach to criticism of O'Connor's work in "A Review of O'Connor Criticsm," a well conceived bibliography covering critical responses from up to the s.
At the time of this writing, the cutting edge in analysis of O'Connor's works can be found in Sura Rath and Mary Shaw's Flannery O'Connor: New Perspectives, a collection of essays examining O'Connor's fiction in terms of reader response, gender issues, and rhetorical criticism. While scholarly analysis of O'Connor's work abounds, the bulk of current criticism seems to harbor an obsession for analyzing her fiction in terms of social topics such as violence, feminism, and racism. Commentary that specifically recognizes the significance of O'Connor's dark treeline in her short fiction is rare.
This is no indication, however, that essays touching on this particular aspect of O'Connor's landscape fail in achieving their individual critical goals, but any treatise will have inherent shortcomings, and the accumulation of these shortcomings within the larger body of criticism leaves noticeable rifts.
One of the first clues to the shortcomings in contemporary analysis of O'Connor's works can be found in one of the few entirely anagogical essays on O'Connor's short fiction. Horton Davies' "Anagogical Signals in Flannery O'Connor's Fiction" briefly examines the woods within the context of the catechetical teachings of the Catholic church. The broad scope of "Anagogical Signals in Flannery O'Connor's Fiction" also allows for only a brief mention of the role the woods play.
Davies' attention to the myriad of other anagogical clues such as eyes, color, physical and moral incompleteness, and the formulaic expression "as if Of course, the focus of Davies' essay is anagogical revelation; particularly the derivation of Catholic religious meaning through the interpretation of these symbols, liturgical colors, and semantics. He does not offer an interpretation of the meanings hidden in the woods. Davies' approach also precludes a secular examination of the subject; his reliance on catechetical criteria fails to relate their importance to a non-Catholic, or even non-Christian reader, and leads to the omission of any interpretation outside of the religious milieu.
While O'Connor is Catholic, and influences from her religious beliefs certainly enter her fiction, it would be oppressive to assume that a Catholic interpretation of her fiction is the only interpretation she intended, considering her statement, "when I write a novel in which the central action is a baptism, I am very well aware that for a majority of my readers, baptism is a meaningless rite, and so in my novel I have to see that this baptism carries enough awe and mystery to jar the reader into some kind of emotional recognition of its significance" Mystery and Manners While Davies does an admirable job of mapping the multitude of anagogical clues in O'Connor's fiction, and acknowledges the presence of the woods and their anagogical role, his essay doesn't probe beyond their existence as a signal indicating that there is a hidden, religious meaning under their mundane aspects.
He also falls short of delving into what that meaning is. Her essay gives ample treatment to the woods and their significance as a technical device for achieving such effects as foreshadowing, yet she stays well within the boundaries of a mechanical analysis of O'Connor's landscape, leaving the door to analysis of how the trees act on a spiritual level firmly closed. This is problematic for the reader who is plumbing the depths of O'Connor's stories beyond the technical level.
Even more troublesome, Pyron's reticence to look beyond the mechanics of the landscape leads to her mistaken conclusion that by the end of each of O'Connor's stories the woods have ceased all function as a literary device and are just a piece of the scenery. Linehan consolidates the extremes found in the previous discourses and spawns an excellent essay applying Davies' anagogical focus to the landscape visited by Pyron.
Linehan's exploration of O'Connor's landscape goes beyond the land as merely setting, beyond the mechanics of the landscape as a foreshadowing device, and into the role of the land as a representative of the spiritual world. Linehan does not resort to a canonical list of anagogical devices, and his efforts carry his examination beyond the level of a road map to the places where a spiritual message resides. Linehan probes the points where these anagogical signals appear, digging out the message which he feels O'Connor has embedded in her work, and coming closest to verbalizing the spiritual message in O'Connor's fiction.
Despite his departure from Davies' catalog of catachetical markers, the conclusion Linehan reaches is, like Davies', limited to an explicitly Christian and implicitly Catholic perspective that "O'Connor employs the woods While this is certainly a valid interpretation of O'Connor's use of the woods, it is a narrow one, which restricts comprehension of O'Connor's message to an entirely Christian audience, and such a restriction conflicts with O'Connor's goal "to make the reader feel, in his bones if nowhere else, that something is going on here that counts" Mystery and Manners Taking these articles as representative of the body of the criticism, one gap in the critical address of O'Connor's woods imagery becomes clear.
The major fault with these particular interpretations of O'Connor's works as well as essays which do not focus on the woods, or simply fall short of a respectable explication of the subject , is their focus on religion, doctrine which relies on belief in the description of the deep knowledge which the religion's founder possessed, rather than spirituality, which stresses direct experience over belief.
The vanishing groves
It would be foolhardy to claim the ability to fill in all the gaps in existing criticism of O'Connor's fiction with one essay, but an effort can be made to focus on the prominent symbolism of the dark woods and peel back the layers of meaning, both mechanical and spiritual, without relying solely on the tenets of Catholicism or Christianity. Certainly, during the hey-day of hermeneutics, amid the Christ-centered culture of Medieval Europe, the Bible was the main text subject to interpretation.
License to interpret the Bible was given to one class: the clergy, so anagogy, by definition, was a Christian pursuit, but such a method of interpretation should be expanded for the twentieth century reader. The grandmother has misled her family down a desolate dirt road into the woods, and just before their car goes over an embankment, a startling transmutation occurs in the world surrounding them; "all at once they would be on a hill, looking down over the blue tops of trees for miles around, then the next minute, they would be in a red depression with the dust coated trees looking down on them" Complete Stories This description is not only prophetic of the impending crash, but conjures images of towering, godlike tree spectators watching these humans perform.
The wreck leaves the family in the bottom of a ditch where only the tops of trees are visible above the road, and behind them are "more woods, tall and dark and deep" Complete Stories ; images giving the impression that the family is hemmed in by the vast audience of trees. A passing car seems to be an imminent source of rescue, but the men who emerge from the car don't behave like rescuers.
The reader realizes at the same moment "the line of woods gaped like a dark open mouth" that these men, the Misfit and his gang, are the villains of the drama. It is this gaping mouth, reflecting our surprise, that connects the audience of trees with the reader. While one cannot, in reality, be a character in the story, O'Connor's carefully timed anthropomorphization of the trees briefly transcends the barrier between reader and text long enough for us to witness our reaction to the situation surface within the story.
The Misfit asks Bailey and John Wesley, "would you mind stepping back in them woods there?
Two shots escape the woods, and the grandmother hears "the wind move through the tree tops like a long satisfied insuck of breath" Complete Stories In this same instant we realize we have been holding our breaths also, if not physically at least in a mental fashion.
Again, the trees make a brief connection with the reader by reflecting the our reaction. After the mother and June Star are led to their execution in the trees, the grandmother is left to realize that there is "nothing around her but woods" Complete Stories She is alone with the Misfit, the arena of trees surrounding them, and when he shoots her he has her body dragged into the woods with the others. While the mechanical uses of the trees are obvious, their spiritual purpose is a bit trickier to discern.
The trees play the role of audience, reflecting our reactions to the skirmish, however whereas we are only voyeurs the trees take part in the action when the characters walk into the woods, allowing the reader to participate, at least vicariously, through our connection with the trees. Throughout the entire incident, the only things to escape the woods are gunshots, screams, and the villains.
Karalie und Paul: Von Menschen und Spiegeln (German Edition)
More than just an audience or a dumping ground for dead bodies, the woods have become a boundary, which for certain characters can be crossed only once; a metaphor for death and the spiritual mysteries that lie beyond. O'Connor refines the role of the woods in many of her later short stories, subtly transforming their connection to the reader and role as an audience, and emphasizing the part they play as a boundary.
While the woods in "A Good Man is Hard to Find" make their appearance toward the end of the story, "A Circle in the Fire" is constructed within a framework that begins, "sometimes the last line of trees was a solid gray-blue wall a little darker than the sky, but this afternoon it was almost black and behind it the sky was a livid glaring white," which sets the stage for another battle Complete Stories Unlike the audience of trees in "A Good Man is Hard to Find," descriptions of the trees as a "gray-blue sentinel line," a "fortress line," and "granite" in A Circle in the Fire characterize them as lines of soldiers and walls of defense in a conflict, rather than spectators who merely watch the combat.
This line of trees, in the eyes of Mrs. Cope, fends off the sky, or some celestial object such as the sun "swollen and flame colored and hung in a net of ragged cloud as if it might burn through any second and fall into the woods" Complete Stories While these images foreshadow the fire at the end of the story, they also reflect Mrs. Cope's frame of mind. The sun which "burn[s] so fast that it seem[s] to be trying to set everything in sight on fire" is the manifestation of Mrs. Cope's anxieties over losing her prized possession, the land she has worked so hard to keep Complete Stories The trees are not only her line of defense protecting her material possessions, but the boundary within which she feels she has control.
Inside their circle, she can claim to be the master, but she struggles to keep even the little things like nut grass under her command. As the story progresses, it becomes painfully obvious that her control is only a delusion. When Powell and his friends arrive, they infiltrate her defenses and come from outside the walls of her perceived fortress line.
The trees are not going to protect Mrs.